Course - "Flexible approach to nutrition with the use of a plant-based diet - flexiterianism"


Flexible approach to nutrition with the use of a plant-based diet – flexiterianism


Block I –  Principles and concepts

1. The main principles of healthy eating based on plant-based diets.
2. The latest discoveries and trends in health nutrition.
3. Diet menu: for medical purposes due to fashion.
4. Food and civilization diseases.
5. Modern food and its disadvantages and impact on humans.
6. Flexiterianism.

Block II –  Knowledge of different textures and validation of the course

1. Soups and broths in a plant-based diet.
2. Cereals and pods in a plant-based diet.
3. Delicacies and dried fruit in a plant-based diet.
4. Dairy substitutes in a plant-based diet. Vegan milks, cheeses, eggs and cottage cheese.
5. Substitutes for meat and fish in a plant-based diet.
6. Supplementation in a plant-based diet

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.

The publications on the Prefconstruction project website reflect only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


Block I –  Principles and concepts


SUBJECT 1. The main principles of healthy eating based on plant-based diets.

PRESENTATION: The main principles of healthy eating based on plant-based diets


SUBJECT 2. The latest discoveries and trends in health nutrition.

These are the top 10 nutrition trends from last years:

  1. Sustainable & Environmentally-friendly Nutrition
  2. Vegan & Plant-based Nutrition
  3. Personalised Nutrition & Biohacking
  4. Nutrition Confusion
  5. Prevention through Nutrition Education
  6. Alternative Proteins
  7. Health at Every Size & Mindful Eating
  8. Meal Replacement & Nutrients on the Go
  9. Ketogenic Nutrition
  10. Sugar-free Nutrition


  1. Sustainable and environmentally-friendly nutrition 

Experts (Nutrition Hub) observe that consumers increasingly make their food choices based on criteria such as sustainability and environmental impact. Furthermore, consumers prefer to purchase food products with little to no packaging, ideally from local and social businesses. They also increasingly choose regionally and seasonally grown fruits and vegetables and some of them even grow fruits and vegetables themselves at home or in community spaces.

  1. Vegan and Plant-based Nutrition

The nutrition experts observe that vegan and plant-based nutrition will move to the mass market with increased demand in vegan convenience products, which ideally are packed in environmentally-sustainable packaging. Vegan and plant-based diets will expand to fields of sports nutrition and clinical nutrition

  1. Personalised Nutrition & Biohacking

We observe an increase in allergies, intolerances, and the desire to optimize body performance: Therefore consumers choose to follow their personal health scheme more and more often by using (digital) health trackers, performance supplements (such as “advanced probiotics”) or diagnostic tests (DNA, biomarker, microbiome, metabolome). In sports nutrition we observe a trend to consume less supplements and optimize performance by applying specific diets such as a ketogenic diet. Not new, but the demand will increase.

  1. Nutrition Confusion

We observe that consumers experience an overload of nutrition information – often with contradictory facts about “the right” diet. Wrong and misleading nutrition information on millions of blogs and social media feed the consumers’ confusion.

  1. Prevention through Nutrition Education

The demand for dietetic treatment increases, especially in clinics where the demand is often not met due to limited financial resources. Furthermore, consumers are increasingly aware that investing in nutrition education for children is a powerful tool to foster healthy habits from early on. Our experts observe health and nutrition education in companies being shifted from solely being focused on physical activity to a more holistic approach with nutrition and mindfulness being equally important topics.

  1. Alternative Proteins

Consumers increasingly look for alternative proteins, especially convenient plant-based foods that replace cheese, sausages, and meat. According to our expert panel these products, however, will only succeed in case that they are natural, low in preservatives and have a clean and clear ingredients list. Furthermore, the acceptance of clean meat will increase once no more fetal bovine serum is required to grow meat cells (apart from a competitive price, obviously).

  1. Health at Every Size & Mindful Eating

While the last decades were characterized by counting calories, dieting, and the yo-yo effect, our expert panel observes a trend towards less food bans and a more fun and relaxed approach to nutrition nowadays: Health at every size (HAES) and mindful eating are two of the important buzzwords here. HAES helps people of all sizes finding compassionate ways to take care of themselves and is a result of the “fat acceptance and body positivity movement”. Mindful eating as a concept describes actively paying attention to our food, moment by moment, without judgment. Both approaches focus on the individual itself and his/her intuition, leading to a sustainable, positive mindset: For one individual, having breakfast might be the most important meal of the day, while for another person, breakfast is not important. In summary: less compulsion and more pleasure.

  1. Meal Replacement & Nutrients on the Go

Traditional food habits have progressively changed: In modern families, both parents work which leads in turn to full-time care of kids in kindergarten and schools. A couple of decades ago the most important meal in families was lunch – today it is dinner. Therefore employees increasingly search for meal replacements and “nutrients on the go” supporting them during long working days. In addition they want to be able to follow a healthy diet rich in nutrients. “Nutrients on the go” include solutions that provide foods or supplements based on natural ingredients that enhance the body’s performance. In private dietetic consultations we observe clients increasingly requesting nutritious meal replacements which they can integrate in their busy lives.

  1. Ketogenic Nutrition

Ketogenic diets will be used by a broader range of consumers. For population groups such as athletes, there is a trend to reduce supplement intake and implement specific diets instead. A ketogenic diet, being one of those, is a high-fat, low- carbohydrate but normal protein (20% of energy intake) diet that forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates to generate energy. The “classic” therapeutic ketogenic diet was developed for the treatment of pediatric epilepsy in the 1920s. Today its benefits are investigated in patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer and Acne among others.

  1. Sugar-free Nutrition

Parents are well-informed about the adverse effects of products high in sugar. Due to the desire of providing healthy eating habits, the anti-sugar movement will continue and needs to – according to our expert panel – be accompanied by evidence-based campaigns educating parents and children about sugar, sugar substitutes, and sweeteners.


SUBJECT 3. Diet menu: for medical purposes due to fashion.

The use of a plant-based diet has an impact on our health and the environment.

Plant-based diet:

  • It is safe at every stage of life.
  • Helps the planet.
  • Reduces the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
  • It protects the heart.
  • Protects against cancer.
  • It helps in weight loss.
  • May weaken bones.
  • Increases the risk of anemia.
  • Has to do with eating disorders.
  • Increases the risk of gout.

Plant Diet&Health


  • Scientists confirm that a plant-based diet can be introduced at any stage of life.
  • The mere restriction of animal products in the menu will have a positive impact on climate change.
  • People who follow a plant-based diet have a 34% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes and a 22% lower risk of stroke.
  • Plant-based products ensure a higher feeling of fullness after eating a meal.
  • Vegetarians and vegans have an average 30% lower dietary protein intake.
  • In a plant-based diet, increase the amount of iron by 1.8 times and increase its absorption.
  • We also know that consuming 4 servings of legumes per week reduces the risk of coronary heart disease by more than 10%.
  • Nuts have similar properties. Consuming 5 servings of nuts a week is associated with a 29% lower risk of dying from heart disease.
  • A plant-based diet does not cure cancer and should not be considered an alternative to traditional treatments. Still, people on a vegetarian diet are 18% less at risk of overall cancer.
  • The results of epidemiological studies, which indicate a 32% lower risk of hospitalization due to heart disease in vegetarians, compared to people on a traditional diet. The researchers corrected the results by also taking into account the level of physical activity, the amount of alcohol consumed, etc.


SUBJECT 4. Food and civilization diseases.

Civilization diseases are related to the development of civilization, many of them see their causes in bad eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle. In addition, there is contaminated soil, water, air and the production of highly processed food. We eat quickly, in a hurry, often ready-made meals full of chemicals, artificial preservatives, stuffed to the brim with sugar and liters of fat. Such a lifestyle cannot be indifferent to human health. It leads to various types of diseases that can significantly hinder everyday functioning.

The list of civilization diseases includes cancers, which in Poland alone cause about 100,000 deaths annually. In 2018, 9.6 million people worldwide died of cancer (according to WHO). The most common types of cancer are those that affect the breasts, lungs, colon, prostate, and stomach. Studies show that only 5-10% of cancer patients received it in the gene pack, the remaining cancers are the result of lifestyle and diet. It is similar with other diseases, and other common ailments are cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, digestive system diseases, lung diseases, osteoporosis, and food intolerances and allergies. Diet and lifestyle are responsible for most of the diseases mentioned above. A slightly different group of civilization diseases are mental diseases – or nutrition can make any difference? It is difficult to find the cause of these diseases in bad eating habits, but a healthy, balanced diet can help you feel better.


Diet and civilization diseases



SUBJECT 5. Modern food and its disadvantages and impact on humans.

One of the modern nutritional trends is fast food.

Many families find themselves taking a trip to their favorite fast food restaurant more often than they would care to admit. According to information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, about 45% of a family’s food budget goes toward eating out somewhere. In 1977, that rate was at just 38%. That means the average household is spending upwards of $6,000 per year just to eat outside of the home.

Although the occasional evening of fast food products will not adversely impact your health, having a habit where you eat burgers and fries constantly can be problematic in a very short period. People who eat fast food products regularly often suffer from headaches, experience dental distress, carry extra weight, and have high blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

There are also issues of insulin resistance, blood sugar spikes, and high salt intake that can become problematic when embracing the offerings of the fast food industry. That’s not to say that every product offered by a restaurant is bad for you. It just means that the individuals who tend to eat items made by this industry consume about 190 calories more than those who do not.

There are several advantages and disadvantages of fast food to consider if you need to have a quick meal. These are the key points to consider.

PRESENTATION: Disadvantages and impact on humans – Fast Food


The next trend in nutrition is modern methods of food processing, preservation and storage:


Canning is the process of applying heat to food that’s sealed in a jar to destroy any microorganisms that can cause food spoilage. Proper canning techniques stop this spoilage by heating the food for a specific period of time and killing these unwanted microorganisms.


Refrigeration this method slows the processes of spoilage, but is less effective for foods with high water content. This process cannot kill micro-organisms, nor stop their growth completely, and a failure to realize its limitations causes many cases of food poisoning.


Pasteurization, a method of heat treatment, is used mainly for milk. By holding the milk at 72°C/162°F for 15 seconds, then cooling it rapidly to 10°C/50°F, all disease-causing bacteria (pathogens) can be destroyed. Less harmful bacteria survive, so the milk will still go sour within a few days.


Dehydration is the process of removing water or moisture from a food product. Food dehydration is safe because water is removed from the food.

Advantage of modern method of food

  1. Food can last for many months or even years
  2. Modern methods can process, preserve, and store a large variety of food
  3. The advanced technology used is fast and can handle large quantities of foods

Disadvantage of modern method of food processing, preservation and storage

  1. The chemical used can be harmful if eaten in excess
  2. The some methods such as irradiation, canning and pasteurization need special skills
  3. Sometime, nutrients are lost thus lowering the nutrients value of food
  4. The advanced technology involved


SUBJECT 6. Flexitarianism.

Flexitarianism is one of the healthiest and easiest diets in the world. There is no regime in it, and there is plenty of taste and freedom. This flexible approach to nutrition puts vegetables and fruit first and allows you to eat meat in smaller quantities but of better quality. The main assumptions of the diet are simple recipes from the available ingredients, it also encourages the elimination of processed foods.

Flexitarianism is perfect for those looking to eat healthy, ecologically, locally and economically. Flexitarianin is, above all, a responsible consumer who chooses high-quality products. The Flexitarian Diet ranks high in the ranks of the best diets for long-term health and disease prevention, is one of the best diets for people with diabetes, and is one of the easiest plant-based diets. It also helps in losing weight.


Advantages of using a flexitarian diet:

  • health benefits (prevention of cardiovascular diseases and obesity),
  • easy to apply,
  • concern for the environment – from CO2 emissions to the growing demand for space for the cultivation of fodder crops (causing, for example, deforestation of the Amazon rainforest), meat consumption has a large impact on the environment,
  • supporting the local economy and organic farms,
  • inspiration to discover new tastes.

Basic principles of a well-balanced diet for adults according to Kinga Paruzel:

  • fruit, vegetables, legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), nuts and whole grains should form the basis of the diet,
  • consuming at least 400 g (i.e. 5 servings) of fruit and vegetables per day, except potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy vegetables,
  • limiting the consumption of salt and sugar,
  • limiting the consumption of fats, especially animal fats, as well as other foods rich in cholesterol and trans fatty acids,
  • hydration of the body, ie drinking 2-3 liters of water a day.

The flexitarian diet is made to be inclusive, but you do want to limit animal protein (including seafood) and processed foods and beverages. Here’s what to add to your shopping cart.

Load up on:

  • Fruits.
  • Vegetables.
  • Plant proteins (beans such as black, kidney or navy, edamame, chickpeas, lentils, tofu).
  • Whole grains (brown rice, oats, barley , quinoa).
  • Plant-based milk (although dairy milk is OK in moderation).
  • Eggs.
  • Dairy (cheese, yogurt or dairy alternatives).
  • Nuts, nut butters, seeds and healthy fats.
  • Oils, herbs and spices.


  • Meat and poultry (lean cuts of beef, chicken breast, turkey breast).
  • Fish (salmon, tilapia, cod, shrimp).
  • Anything with added sugar or refined carbohydrates.

“Focusing on plant-based foods and not eating as much meat can be really hard for some people,” says Patton. “But nowadays you can find great bean-based burgers, canned bean and lentil soup and bean based pastas to start off, but eventually it’s even better to make your own home made versions.




Block II –  Knowledge of different textures and validation of the course


SUBJECT 1. Soups and broths in a plant-based diet.

Soups are less and less on our tables. It is a pity because they are tasty and healthy. Moreover, it is very simple and quick to prepare. Soups are also an integral part of a slimming diet.

Benefits of eating soups:

  1. Soups do not fatten
  2. Soups provide many nutrients
  3. Soups are great warmers
  4. Soups are a way to eat vegetables
  5. The soups are easy to prepare

Soups do not fatten

Soups are filling, but not fattening, so even a slimming diet should not force you to give up on them. Pure soup cooked in vegetable stock is filling, but not caloric. A serving of vegetable soup (approx. 300 g) provides approx. 100 calories. Additives to soups, e.g. pasta, potatoes, rice, are more caloric, so use them in moderation. But if you only eat soup, it has to be „rich”. You can cook the soup on a stock of lean meat or poultry without the skin. To make it leaner, after cooking, put the stock in the fridge and collect any visible fat from the top before heating it. Replace the cream or roux with skim milk or yogurt, or a tablespoon of olive oil. The benefit of eating soup is that it fills your stomach and leaves less space for a second course, usually more caloric.

Soups provide many nutrients

We usually combine various ingredients in the soup – vegetables, meat, groats, fats, thanks to which a properly cooked soup is a source of necessary and easily digestible nutrients. It contains a lot of minerals: potassium (regulates water balance and blood pressure), phosphorus and calcium (building blocks of bones and teeth), iron, magnesium, and fluorine. Provides vitamin E and beta-carotene (fight free radicals), organic acids and fiber (regulate digestion). Short-cooked vegetable soups also contain a certain amount of vitamin C (a strong antioxidant) and vitamin B (they strengthen the nervous system, protect against the effects of stress). The soup with meat stock contains protein and fat (it enables the absorption of vitamins A, D, E and K). The soup with noodles, rice, and groats provides carbohydrates (energy source), and with the addition of milk – vitamin D.

Soups are great warmers

In summer you can live on cold soups, fruit soups or salads. On cold days, you need to eat something warm, because cold dishes additionally chill the body. As a result, after the salad you quickly feel hungry, eat and gain weight. In addition, the cold weakens the immune system, which is why people who do not eat anything warm all day get infections more easily. There is no better way to warm up on a frosty day than with a bowl of hot soup. If you add a lot of vegetables, onions or garlic to the stock, you will additionally strengthen the immune system to fight viruses and bacteria.

Soups are a way to eat vegetables

In order to provide the body with the right amount of minerals and vitamins, you should eat 1/2 kg of vegetables a day. However, we eat too little of them. This mainly applies to children, who generally do not like salads, and the elderly – they often have digestive or biting problems, so they avoid them too. For those who, for one reason or another, avoid vegetables, vegetable soups are a good solution, as long as they are cooked briefly (about 15 minutes) and covered (except for cruciferous vegetables with an intense green color) – then they retain most of the ingredients nutritional. The healthiest soup is fresh, made just before serving.

Soups and broths are important meals also in a plant-based diet.

Some examples of recipes plant soups:


SUBJECT 2. Cereals and pods in a plant-based diet.

Legumes and more precisely the seeds of various legumes. These are various products, widely available, cheap and healthy, but still too rarely used in the diet. Legume seeds are the second most important source of plant food for humans after cereals. We often use pods in our plant-based diet. After all, pods are not only peas in traditional Polish pea soup or baked beans. The best known legumes are: soybeans, beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils and broad beans. Each species has its own varieties. These products can be used to prepare various types of pastes, patties, soups, creams, stews, pates and even cakes.

Legume seeds have several nutritional benefits.

First of all, they are a source of easily digestible protein. The protein content of legumes is about 17-20% of dry matter in peas and beans and 38-40% in soybeans. For comparison, in cereals it is about 7-13%. Therefore, it is believed that the pods can replace meat and other animal products in a plant-based diet. These products also provide large amounts of iron (an element essential for the proper course of immune processes, maintaining well-being and preventing anemia) and vitamins, especially from the B group (the right amount of vitamins ensures the proper functioning of the digestive system). In addition, legumes are an excellent source of fiber, which keeps you feeling full, prevents constipation, stabilizes sugar levels and helps lower blood cholesterol.

Literature data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicate that frequent consumption of legumes reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease in general. Their advantage is also the fact that they have a low glycemic index, so that after eating them, there will be no rapid increase in glycemia – they can be safely consumed by patients with diabetes and those struggling with insulin resistance

We often avoid consuming a lot of pods due to their bloating properties. Yes, these plants show a greater ability to generate intestinal gas than others, but there are ways to avoid them. To do this, you need to soak the legumes before cooking in soft, or boiled, water. Some seeds require several hours of soaking, while others take about 30 minutes. In addition, you can change the water while cooking, or add a little baking soda to it. It is also recommended to season the pods with herbs that facilitate digestion, such as cumin, marjoram, thyme, savory and bay leaf. It is also worth remembering that lentils are the easiest to digest, and the most difficult – soybeans. For this reason, soybeans are best eaten in the form of fermented beans – tofu (soy curd), miso (fermented soybean paste), tempeh (an ingredient made from fermented soybeans subjected to special microorganisms). You should also pay attention to the source of the soybeans – whether it is genetically modified.

People suffering from ulcers and heartburn should be careful about the pods – in this case, it is worth limiting to easily digestible red lentils or mashed seeds in the form of pastes. Although some legumes are also available in the form of ready-made dishes in jars or cans, it is better to cook them yourself, because the liquids in which they are stored usually contain a lot of salt, and sometimes also harmful food additives, such as artificial colours and preservatives.


SUBJECT 3. Delicacies and dried fruit in a plant-based diet.

Why are nuts and dried fruits so important?

Nuts are energy-densenuts in a plant based diet foods packed with vitamins and minerals therefore, adding them into your diet will give you the nutritional boost you need. They are high in “good” fats which research has shown can be beneficial for our health when eaten as part of a healthy diet and are also a good source of plant-based protein. Also, each nut offers different nutritional benefits, so eating a combination can ensure you get a variety of nutrients in each serving.

Traditional dried fruits (without added sugar) can also be beneficial as they provide a concentrated form of vitamins and minerals. Dried fruits have many health benefits, especially relating to blood sugar levels and type 2 diabetes. Also, their daily consumption could provide the full benefits of some essential nutrients such as fiber in dates, or vitamin A in dried apricots, which helps maintain normal vision and skin.


SUBJECT 4. Dairy substitutes in a plant-based diet. Vegan milks, cheeses, eggs and cottage cheese.

What Is Plant-Based Dairy?

Plant-based dairy products are just as their name implies. They are foods that we might typically find made with dairy milk—milk that comes from cows or other animals such as sheep and goats—but they’re made with plants instead.

Some plant-based dairy items you may find on supermarket shelves include:

Soy milk

Coconut milk

Rice milk

Nut milk (such as cashew milk or almond milk)

Hemp milk

Dairy-free ice cream

Dairy-free yogurt

Vegan sour cream

Vegan cheese

The list of milk substitutes and vegan dairy products available for purchase grows by the day as food manufacturers seek to offer customers more dairy alternatives.

Plant-Based Dairy Products and Nutrition


SUBJECT 5. Substitutes for meat and fish in a plant-based diet.

Meat alternatives are growing in popularity

More and more consumers are questioning the consumption of meat and the effects that our diets have on animals, the environment, and our health. This is also reflected in the increasing demand for meat alternatives. All well-known supermarkets now offer a wide range of plant-based burgers, sausages, and other meat substitutes, based on legumes, vegetables, cereals, and other ingredients. Meat alternatives offer several advantages compared to meat. Vegan versions of burgers, for example, are free of cholesterol and usually contain fewer calories and less fat than similar burgers made with meat.

Other meat substitutes

The risks of meat consumption

Global meat production and consumption is still on the rise. Worldwide, more than 74 billion animals are bred, fattened and slaughtered every year.1 Most of them are chickens and pigs. In 2013, 43.22 kg of meat was consumed per person, with more than 20% of that meat ending up as food waste.2 3 In the US, per capita consumption of meat was 115 kg, while in Europe it was around 80 kg.4 According to projections, meat production will increase by another 13% between 2017 and 2026.

Regularly occurring food scandals such as swine flu and rotten meat, as well as the increasing occurrence of multidrug-resistant pathogens, exacerbated by the high use of antibiotics, are just a few examples of the health risks that animal-based foods can pose. Meat consumption is also a risk factor for diseases of the cardiovascular system. A US study, with more than 500,000 participants, showed that, compared to people consuming the least meat, men with the highest meat consumption were 27% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease, whereas for women the risk was elevated by 50%. The more red and processed meat that was eaten, the greater the risk became.

Fish alternatives

Reminiscent of the smell of the sea, the typical savoury and salty flavour of algae can add a special touch to a meal, making it a good fish substitute. Whether seaweed, nori, or wakame, algae makes fish superfluous – in soups, salads, and rice dishes. Plant-based fish fingers and burgers also benefit from algae’s marine flavour. Not only does it appeal to our taste buds, algae also offers added health benefits, including valuable minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids. Due to its high iodine content, algae should be consumed in moderation (iodine content, as well as the maximum daily allowance, are usually indicated on the packaging). Algae is available at organic markets, health food stores, and certain supermarkets.


SUBJECT 6. Supplementation in a plant-based diet.

A dietary supplement is “A product containing one or more vitamins, herbs, enzymes, amino acids, or other ingredients, that is taken orally to supplement one’s diet, as by providing a missing nutrient”. The global supplement industry growing rapidly, and will be worth nearly €300 billion by 2024. According to nutritional research, it is necessary to supplement certain nutrients on a plant-based diet. The reasons for this are detailed below. You may come across online articles, plant-based guru’s or social media personalities who state otherwise. This is their opinion, and as it is not based on any credible scientific research, it should be disregarded.

Why You Need Supplements

You may at this point be asking why, if a plant-based or diet is the healthiest diet we know of, one must supplement the diet. It does seem contradictory that the diet is advocated for its superior nutrient content and yet is nutritionally incomplete. Firstly, the standard western diet is not nutritionally complete to begin with. In the US, 97% of the population are deficient in the nutrient of fiber. Only 3% meet the daily minimum requirement for fiber intake. If you do not know by now, fiber is only found in plants. Less than 2% of Americans meet the minimum daily requirement for potassium, which again is highest in plant foods. Water, like potassium, is required by every cell in our body to function correctly; 75% of US adults are also chronically dehydrated. Water is found in either liquid form, or in food. Animal products contain no water, again, it is only found in fresh fruits and vegetables. B12 deficiencies are common in Vegans and meat eaters alike, and is explored further below. It is recommended that all adults over 50 should be taking a B12 supplement, regardless of meat consumption or not.

Secondly, our food, in this case fruits and vegetables, is grown by the agri-food industry; not nature. Food grown in nature is nurtured in vastly bio-diverse ecosystems, where soil is naturally rich in minerals and vitamins. The agri-food industry on the other hand grows food on an industrial scale with yield, profit, demand and low cost production at top of mind. As with all industries, profit maximization is the goal, while nutritional content is an afterthought. In nature, a piece of fruit falls from a tree when it is perfectly ripe; we harvest before it is ready, which leads to lower nutritional content. The nutritional content of a plant is dependent on the nutrient content of the soil, air, and water in which the plant is grown. If there is low nutrients in its environment, the plant itself will be of low nutritional value. Sadly, industrialization of farming and mono crop cultures (the growing of only one crop repeatedly in the same field) has resulted in soil so depleted of nutrients that the UK, our nearest neighbour, has only 100 harvests left in its soil as nutrient content sharply declines & bio diversity is lost. Eat organic fruits and vegetables where possible. If it is outside your budget, aspire to eat partially or wholly organic one day.


The Beginner’s Guide to a Plant-Based Diet